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Educational Management



            In recent years, the Department of Educational Management has witnessed many candidates applying to study Business Education in the University of Ilorin, and who indeed have NCE (Business Education), Advanced Level papers in Business Management, Accounting and Economics as their entry qualifications.  At best, the Department has been able to offer them admission for Educational Management with minor in Accounting or Economics leaving out other aspects such as Secretarial (Office Education) and Marketing Education.  It is in the light of the above that the Department wishes to mount programme in Business Education.  The programme is expected to prepare teachers for both junior and senior secondary schools.  This programme will help to solve the problem of shortage of manpower to teach Business Studies, Principles of Accounting, Typewriting, and Shorthand in our secondary schools.  


If University of Ilorin mounts this programme it will boost the supply of teachers in Business Education and will also take care of teaming candidates from the University catchment areas and elsewhere who are seeking admission year in year out.  In addition, the programme may be used to resuscitate the defunct University of Ilorin Staff Development Centre which used to prepare Junior and Intermediate manpower in secretarial administration for the University and sister institutions within the State.  Furthermore, the programme will go a long way to ensure the accreditation of Business Education programme of the Colleges of Education seeking affiliation to the University of Ilorin.


Philosophy of the Programme

 State clearly the philosophy of the proposed programme.

The philosophy of the programme is derived from the National Philosophy on Education which advocates acquisition of appropriate skills and development of mental, physical and social abilities and competences as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of the society.


 Programme Objectives:

  1. to produce qualified graduates of Business Education who will be able to teach in Nigerian secondary schools and other related educational institutions such as Staff Development Centres, Federal Training Centre, Colleges of Education and Polytechnics.
  2. to develop in students entrepreneurial ability
  3. to equip graduates with the right skills that will enable them to  engage in a life of work either in the office or as self-employees.


Duration of Programme

The programme shall run for 3 years for candidates seeking direct admission while UTME candidates are required to spend 4 years


Graduation Requirements

To be eligible for the award of B.Sc. (Ed.) Business Education, the following conditions are required.


i.  A minimum of 90 Credits (in the case of 3 – year programme) or 120 Credits (in the     case of 4 – year programme) must be earned including all compulsory courses.


ii.  At least 60 of the 90 or 120 Credits required for graduation as appropriate must be

            earned at the 300 and 400 levels of the programme.


iii.  At least 25 Credits must be earned in each of Education and a Second Major subjects

and a minimum of 8 credits from the optional subject at 200, 6 credits at 300 and 6 credits 400 levels of the programme.



100 Level


BED 101: Introduction to vocational and Technical education                        3 Credits

Definition, scope, philosophy and objectives of Vocational and Technical Education. Funding of VTE programmes. Development of Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria. The role of Vocational Technical Education in National Development. Youth Leadership Development. public speaking, time Management, leadership styles, organizational skills, group Dynamics, professional meetings. etc. Characteristics of Vocational and Technical Education.  Problems and prospects of Vocational and Technical Education.  Place of Vocational and Technical Education in Universal Basic Education.

 30h (T); C


BED 102:     Commerce I                                                              3 Credits

Concept of Commerce.  Human wants and satisfaction. Concept of production. Functions of Commerce.   Exchange of goods and services.  Home trade.  Concept of Home trade.  Retailers and Wholesalers. Organizational structure of Trade.  Outlet and wholesale trade.  Functions of Marketing Boards. Term of Sales. Trade Classification.  Specialization in Business Organisations.  Types of Business Units. 

45h (T); C


EMA 102         Introduction to Management theories                         3 Credits

An overview of the historical Development of management theories. Included are Classical School of management. Behavioural School of Management and additional Schools of Management thought, Management.  Functions at various managerial skills are examined

30h (T); E


BED 103          Introduction to Business Mathematics                        3 Credits

Fractions, decimals, approximations. Progressions; Geometric and Arithmetic.    Simultaneous equations (by graph, elimination, and Cramer’s Rule), Algebraic expressions (fractions and graphs).

30(T) C


BED 104:         Basic Accounting Concepts                                          3 Credits

Historical Origin of accounting, Distinction between book-keeping and Accounting, Financial Accounting, Principles and Techniques, Scope and Structure of Accounting Theory, Fundamental underlying Assumptions, Fundamental Theoretical concepts, Generally accepted Principles and Accounting procedures, subsidiary books of accounts, ledgers and account balancing, correction of errors, petty cash book, accounts of non-profit making organisations such as schools, bank reconciliation,

30h (T); C


BED 105          Principles of Economics                                                  3 Credits

The nature and significance of economic studies, meaning of economics, the economist tools of analysis, demand and supply theory, elasticity analysis, dynamic theory of price, production theory, output and cost.  Competition (monopoly, oligopoly), distribution theory, factors of production, interest rate and profit.

30 (T); E.



EMA 106         Introduction to Human Resources Management         3 Credits

Fundamental Principles and Practices of recruiting and selecting, Placing and inducing, developing, appraising, rewarding performance and utilizing human resources.  Attention will be given to the fair Employment practices and implications for education managers. 30h(T); E


BED 106          Introduction to Computer Keyboarding and

 Words Processing                                                                   3 Credits              

Meaning of Typewriting, Sitting Techniques, types of typewriters and computers, Care/Handling Typewriters, sizes of paper, insertion and removal of paper, margin setting, erasing techniques, placing of fingers, typing techniques.

45h (T), C


BED 107          Introduction to Shorthand (Shorthand Theory)           3 Credits

Origin of shorthand, meaning of shorthand, Benefits of studying shorthand, suitable materials for shorthand studies, Areas that need shorthand skills, Basic principle/theories in shorthand, The consonants, the alphabets, the Diphthongs, Consonants, joining, phrasing and formation of sentences.  Shorthand Reading Techniques.

45h (T), C


BED 108          Consumer Education                                                    3 Credits

To develop in students a knowledge of basic economic principles with particular attention to the problems of consumption.  To enable student consumers to make intelligent buying choices.  Elements of personal financial affairs, including budgeting, saving credit, insurance and investment of funds.  Knowledge concerning the sources of aids for consumers and to develop the ability to choose wisely between true and false information.  The part played by government and the contribution that government makes to the protection and advancement of consumer welfare and rights.

45h (T) E.


BED 201 Business Education Law                                                                   3 Credits

Meaning of law and sources of Nigerian Law. The Law of Contract.   Meaning of Tort and its relevance to Business. Agency.  The nature and legal interpretation of sale of Goods.  The definition of negotiable instrument and types of Negotiable instruments.

30h (T); C


BED 202          Basic concept  of  Marketing                                                      2 Credits

Marketing-Meaning and Function, Approaches to the study of marketing, Concepts of marketing, Marketing mix. Market segmentation, Channels of distribution, Promotion mix, Role of Marketing Boards.

30h (T); C


BED 203          Introduction to Financial Accounting                                      3 Credits

Accounting terms e.g. Assets, Liabilities, debit, credit etc. Basic principles of accounting including receipts and payment, income and expenditures.  Double book-keeping.  Balance sheet, cash book, petty cash book.

 60h (P);C


EMA 203         School Management Laws and Standard Operating Procedures           3 Credits

Laws as the basis of educational administration.  A critical analysis of the Educational laws of Nigeria.  Issues and problems in legislation for education.  Recruitment, deployment and discipline and certification of students.  Maintenance of school buildings and supply of equipment.  Purpose, preparation and storage of equipment reports. 

30h (T); E.


BED 204     Office Practice                                                                              3 Credits

Methods of payment: imp rest accounting control.  Duplicating process, Office supplies.  Office equipment and machines in common use.  Electronic composer, hand-processing machine, etc. Structure of office.  Postal services, communication in the office e.g office memo, mails handling.

30h  (T): E

BED 205          Principles of Small Business Management                               3 Credits           

Concepts of small business partners, Financing problems and sources of funds, small scale production and distribution, marketing problems, Risks of operation and risk minimization technique, planning, innovation and viability problems, governmental incentives and promotional techniques, cost analysis and feasibility problems, Nigerian environment and society in relation to operations of small business opportunities and limitations, small business role in national development. 30h (T).E


BED 206          Business and National Development                                             3 Credits

Concepts and constitute of elements of political and economic dimensions of national development to Introduction to the comparative analysis of the relations between Business and the political and economic system. Case Study of the relationship between business and Development planning in some selected countries.

30h (T); E


BED 207 Use of Computer in Business Education                                          3 Credits

Types of computers, hardware and software and software Components of computer hardware Operating a computer, Data and information, Transmission of Information.  Information Processing and need for Computer.  Computer Programming. 30h (T); C.


EMA 207         Collective Bargaining and Nigeria’s

Educational Institutions                                                          2 Credits

Evolution of collective bargaining.  Components in the collective bargaining Process, relationships between unions and management including grievance procedures, issues in education and bargaining.

30h (T) E



At least 8 Credits must be passed from the under listed Options:


  1. Office Technology

BET 201          Office Systems and Procedures                                    2 (Credits)

Reprographic System; Word Processing Systems; Data Processing Systems; Mailing and Shipping System; Manufacturing Systems; Customer Service Systems; accounting Systems; A Professional Office Career – Job opportunities for office workers, Employment procedures, interview strategies, advancement procedures.

30h (T) E


BET 202          Business and its Environment                                         2 (Credits)

Job standards; work standards, business ethnics and policies.  Legal system affects business.  The characteristics of major types of business organisations.  Environmental law and energy regulation.  The legal implications of electronic communications and information systems on business.  Common international standards of measurement for solving business problems.  Unique characteristics of an entrepreneur.  Characteristics and features of viable business opportunities.  How ethics, government and different forms of business ownership affect the entrepreneurial venture. 

30h (T) E


BET 203          Information Technologies and Business Functions        2 Credits

The major components of marketing information technologies and their interrelationships.  The major components of accounting/finance information technologies and their interrelationships.  The major components of manufacturing information technologies and their interrelationships.  The major components of human resource management, information technologies and their interrelationships. 

30h (T) E.   





BET 204          Stenography and Transcription I                                   2 Credits

Stenography is a combination of two Courses; Shorthand and keyboarding.  The two subjects go hand-in-hand under Stenography and Transcription because after the Shorthand writer takes down the dictation, the matter is then transcribed on to a word-processor or computer.  Theory and Practical;  The 24 consonants, P,B,T,D, - H;  The vowels; Two forms of R;  Diphthongs;  5 Circle; ST & STR loops.  Halving, Downward L; Double consonants, etc.  Short forms and phrases.

15h (T) 30h (P) C


BET 205 Keyboarding and Word Processing II                                              2 Credits

Printers sign and abbreviations, words and figures, layout of Business letters, Carbon paper, layout of memos, column heading, speed and accuracy development.

15h(T) 30h(P);C


BET 206          Office Information and Communication Technology   2 Credits

Know advanced word processing and revise keyboarding principle;  Apply health and safety principles when operating computers at work;  Other areas are word processing, proofreading, editing, formatting, graphics, records management in the office, processing mail, electronic mail, stimulation productivity, equipment use, data security, entering and verifying computer literacy and internet technology. 

30h (T) C


  1. Commerce and Marketing

BEC 201          Principles of Marketing                                                                    2 Credits

Identify reasons why customers return to the same business; Explain ways companies show concern for customers; Describe the factors that influence customer-business relationships (e.g., return policies, pricing and advertising; recognize that a successful marketing strategy is built on positive customer relationships; Identify the elements of the marketing mix (e.g., product, price, plan and promotion); Describe the importance of marketing in a global economy.

 30h (T) C


BEC 202          E-Commerce I                                                                  3 Credits

The course is designed to help student’s master skills in the design and construction of complex web sites for conducting business electronically.  Emphasis is on skill development in advanced webpage construction and entrepreneurial applications of conducting business electronically as well as economic, social, legal and ethical issues related to electronic business.  Students will plan, design, create, publish, maintain and promote an electronic business website.  Communication skills and critical thinking are reinforced through software applications.  45h (T) C


BEC 203          International Trade Relations                                            3 Credits

Importing and exporting (Differences between exporting a good and exporting a service; the steps in the importing and exporting process; Trade barriers and agreements (Why governments impose trade barriers, e.g., quotas, tariffs, licensing requirements and exchange rate controls; balance of trade. 

45h (T) E.


BEC 204          Market Research                                                                             3 Credits The role of research in the solution of marketing problems, emphasis of available data and methods of the field of investigation.

45h (T); E

BED 302         Business Statistics                                                                 2 Credits

The nature and definition of statistics, Data collection and tabulation (frequency distribution), Graphical representation of data, Computation of the measures of central tendency and Dispersion, Introduction to probability, Statistical association,                 Simple linear regression, Correlation, Elements of statistical inference, Tests of hypotheses.

30h (T); E

BED 303         Supervision in Business education                                      2 Credits           

Aims, purposes, patterns and processes of supervision in Business education, Functions and duties of a Business education supervisors.  Curriculum development, analysis of classroom activities and improvement of instruction of Business education, through supervisory techniques.  Study of trends in supervision and accepted procedures for observation in Business education.

30h (T);


BED 304         Management Information System                                      2 Credits

Manual method of accounting.  Machine: Punched cards system (summary only), Introduction to Electronics Data Processing (EDP), Computer hardware; Soft ware;

Computer files; data Collection and controls; Programming (summary only), Flowcharts.

30 h (T); E


BED  305      Company Law                                                                           2  Credits

The nature of corporate personality, its advantages and  Disadvantages: distinction

between company and  Partnership; kind of companies recognized under the  Companies

 and allied  Matters Decree, 1990.  Formation  of companies,     Promoters and their  duties

 prospectuses Ultra-vires and indoor management doctrine, raising;  Maintenance of  

capital, shares and debentures, Annual returns and company; Management: officers  

of Company, duties of directors and problems of enforcement: Protection of minority and

the Remedy available to the minority.  Annual returns, Reconstruction, Amalgamation

 and winding Up, Insurance law and practice and banking Law. General provisions of the

banking act,  (as amended) and insurance act, 1976 and with amendments).

30h (T)  C                                    


BED 306         Computer Skill Applications                                               2 Credits

In-depth activities in PowerPoint, Excel and adds Access to round out the complete the Microsoft Office Pro suite.  These activities will integrate databases, spreadsheets and graphics. 

30h (T) C


BED 307           Business Finance                                                                 2 Credits           

Definition of finance, Areas of finance, functions of finance, the goals of the firm (the business objectives).  Capital budgeting (Time value of money, methods of project evaluation).  Financial Ratio analysis, financial forecasting (e.g. percentage of sales method etc).  The Nigeria Stock Exchange, The Nigerian Securities and Exchange Commission.

30h (T), E


BED 308         Sales Management                                                                2 Credits

Sales management and control, determining sales policies, formulating personal selling strategy, organizing the sales efforts, the sales executive job and distribution network relations.  Sales force management, placing and conducting sales travelling programme, motivating the individual sales person, evaluating and supervising sales personnel.  The sales bid fiat, control and analysis.

30h (T), C





BED 309         Office Management                                                              2 Credits

Office organization. Office planning and layout. Management. Modern office management. Record management, form design and control.

30h (T), E


 BED 310      Business Communication I                                                      2 Credits

Communication Skills, Communication process, Organizational Communications, Organizational structures for communicating.  Communicating with the public.  Barriers to communication.

30h (T); E


BED 311         Practicum in Business Education                                        2 Credits

Management techniques in Business Education planning and administration.  Practical work on PPBS, PERT, system analysis, Delphi and Model Building analysis as they relate to business organisations.  Grading of jobs in business organisations.  (15h (T): 30h (P) C.



At least 6 Credits must be passed from the under listed Options.


(i) Office Technology

BET 301         Administrative Office Management                                    2 Credits

Office organization, Office planning and layout Management processes and functions,              Filling and indexing, Record Management form designs and control, Personnel Management, Staff recruitment, Wages and salaries administration, Staff training and development, Work management and standards.

30h (T) E


BET 302         Stenography and Transcription II                                      2 Credits

Drills on basic transcription techniques; Students’ typing and English skills and knowledge determined; Typing and transcribing rates on straight copy;  Use of comma, semicolon and full stop; Drills on spelling words, remedial drill on English problems; 


Use of dash, apostrophe and quotation marks;  capitalization rules.

15h (T) 15h (P) C


BET 303 ICT Office Applications I                                                            2 Credits

This course provides a solid background in developing a higher level of proficiency in

computer, application software and keyboarding skills; more advanced applications in

Microsoft Office, including Word, Excel and PowerPoint.  This is purely office application. 

15h (T) 15h (P) C




BET 304         Desktop Publishing                                                       2 Credits

Revise the concept of word processor and applications in designing brochures (2-fold and 3 – fold), flyers, business cards, pamphlets and posters; The importance of using the right software that is appropriate for each task in the office; The difference between Word processors and desktop publishing; Identify basic competencies in using desktop publishing concepts to produce a simple publication; Identify and use appropriate software correctly.  30h (T) E



BET 305         Professional Ethics and Social Responsibility          2 Credits

The concept of profession and professionalism;  The concepts ethics and professional work ethics;  Ethical standards and behaviours in the office;  The difference between ethics and morally;  The roles of professional bodies in promoting ethical practices;  The roles of government in regulating on ethical practices. 

30h (T) E.


BET 306         Web Page Design                                                           3 Credits

Students learn the different types of websites and information delivery using the Internet; the concepts of e-commerce and e-business and the role of successful webpage production to achieve online business success and delivering information online.      

45h (T) E


( ii) Commerce and Marketing

BEC 301   Distributive Economy                                                    2 Credits

Economic concepts (Differences between marginal costs and sunk costs).  Market economy characteristics.  Function of price.  Role profit and risk.  Role of government.   30h (T) C.


BEC 302   Distributive Finance                                                      2 Credits

Determining cash needs (Projecting the total cash needed to start a business, e.g. start-up, ongoing operational expenses and cash reserves).  Identifying sources and types of funding (Types of funding for an entrepreneur, e.g. mortgage, short-term loan, long-term lean and credit line).  Interpreting financial statements (Identify factors that cause changes in the financial picture of a business).

30h (T) E.


BEC 303   Distributive Accounting                                                    2 Credits

Keeping business records (identify how business use computers records).  Identifying types of business records (Various types of financial records).  Establishing and using business records (Develop plans to manage receivable and accounts payable. 

Interpreting business records (Evaluate the financial condition of a firm based on business records)

30h (T) E.


BEC 304   Distributive Management                                                 2 Credits

Establishing a vision (Creating and developing strategies for achieving a personal vision; Establish goals and objectives for a planned business).  Hiring employees (Diagram the organisational structure of a planned business; Assess alternatives to hiring permanent full-time employees).  Building teams (The importance of motivation, leadership and trust to members of a team).Monitoring achievement; managing risks.    30h (T) E.









BEC 305         Global Markets                                                                2 Credits

Cultural differences (Compare and contrast business practices in different; Analyse necessary modifications to Nigerian business practices to facilitate interaction in the global marketplace). Import/Export opportunities (The effects of government regulations on international trade; Ways the internet has impacted trade between countries).  Global trends (Current trends in entrepreneurial opportunities in the global marketplace); Opportunities for small business development on trends in the global \marketplace). 

30h (T) E.


BEC 306         Commerce II                                                                          3 Credits

Concept of foreign trade, import and export.  Terms of trade and terms of payment, documents used in foreign trade. Concepts of warehousing, transportation and                  types of transport, communication.  Bank-types and role in Commerce Insurance -meaning, purpose and terms; Types and importance to economy stock exchange.

45h (T); C


400 Levels


BED 401:       Business Communication II                                                 2 Credits

Communication theory and practice in oral, written and non-verbal situations, communication models, Analysis of business communication and the strategies of application including takeovers, merger etc.  Distinction between acquisition and merger accounting.  Review of the various SSAP statements and their impact on accounting principle and practices.  Accounting for pension funds.  Accounting for local Authorities and Governments.

30h (T), E


BED 402         Policy Analysis in Business Education                               2 Credits

An analysis of the decision-making process in complex business organisation.  The impact of powers, resources, organisational structure, information, and environment, decision making models and their implications for business education.  A critical analysis policy documents and reports on business and vocational education.  The role of Interest groups in the process of policy formulation and review for business education.

30h(T) C


EMA 402        Economics of Education                                                       2 Credits

Human resources development, problems of manpower planning, social and economic implications of educational planning, educational planning, education and jobs, education and income, private returns to investment in education; cost analysis in education, cost effectives and the costing of educational plans.

30h (T);E


BED 403:        Policy Analysis in Business Education                               2 Credits

An analysis of the decision-making process in Business. Organizations.  The impact of powers, resources, Organizational structures, information, and environment, Decision-making models and their implications for Business education. A critical analysis of policy documents and reports in Nigeria education.  The role of interest groups in the process of policy formation and review. 

30h (T) E.




BED 404:    Personnel Administration and Evaluation  in Business education    2 Credits

Job analysis, work load analysis and specification of credentials. Recruitment, selection and development of teachers. Supportive staff.  Administrator-teacher relations.  Career patterns in Nigeria education today.  Code of ethics.  Merit rating and evaluation for advancement and promotion.

30h (T): C.


BED 405         Co-operative Economics and Administration                   2 Credits

Concept and principles of cooperative; types and roles of cooperative; organisational structure; sources of finance; problems and prospect of cooperative.

30h (T);C


BED  420  Seminar in Business Education                                                 2 Credits

Consideration, identification and examination of some of the major issues presently facing Nigerian education and occupation, education in the nation’s schools.  The importance and problems of career choice in comprehensive schools. Practical Demonstration (just as in project writing each student should choose topic, write, present/defend in a formal setting e.g. class).

30h (T), C


BED  499   Research Project in Business Education                               4 Credits

A research project in Business education involving collation, anlaysis and interpretation of data or other types of evidence for an empirical or historical research.  180h (P); C



At least 6 Credits must be passed from the under listed Courses


  1. Office Technology

BET 401         ICT Office Applications II                                                   2 Credits

Know advanced word processing and revise keyboarding principles and techniques; Apply health and safety principles when operating computers at work; Develop skills using spreadsheet applications and develop keyboarding techniques to enter data accurately. 

15h (T) 30h (P) C


BET 402         Advanced Stenography and Transcription                        2 Credits

Know and develop the ability to take down dictation passages for production work and varied materials at irregular speed of not less than 80 wpm.; Know how to compose business and other relevant documents from limited information or instructions; know how to plan, organize and produce mail able documents; Understand and techniques for covering meeting and recording the proceedings of a meeting; Acquire the skills for collecting relevant information from source documents.  

15h (T) 30h (P); E








BET 403         Exploring Business Technologies                                        2 Credits           

Exploration of the nature of business organisation an international economy and to study related careers in fields such as entrepreneurship, financial services, information technology, marketing, office systems technology, public relations and promotion, and travel and tourism.  Emphasis is on using the computer while studying applications in these careers along with problem solving and thinking skills.  Communication and mathematics skills are reinforced as students explore business applications and careers.    

 45h (T); E


BET 404           Keyboarding III                                                                  2 Credits

Alphabetic sentence drills and remedial exercise, Procedure and layout of Business, personal and official letters and memos, Manuscript, Insert matter Roman numerals.

15h (T) 45h (P) E


  1. Commerce and Marketing

BEC 401         Markets and Prices                                                               2 Credits

How different prices affect the buying and selling decisions of consumers and producers;  the role of the market in determining what, how and for whom economic goods and services are produced in the Nigerian economy;  How the equilibrium price changes according to changes in supply or demand;  How a market reacts to governmental intervene  (e.g., ceilings, floors and regulations).

30h (T) E.


BEC 402         Market Structures                                                              2 Credits

How competition among sellers of a good or service generally results in lower price for buyers and lower profit for sellers;  The characteristics of monopoly and natural monopoly and identity example in the market;  The major barriers to new firms entering a market and how the barriers affect the level of competition in an industry;  Examples of positive and negative externalities (e.g., spill over costs) and analyzing the government’s role in correcting market failures (e.g., tax policies; subsidies and regulations).  

30h (T) C.


BEC 403         Productivity                                                                        2 Credits

How investment in research and development affects productivity;  Distinguishing between fixed, variable; explicit and costs;  The principle of diminishing returns and illustrating how it relates to productivity;  Differentiating between lowest cost, marginal cost and average cost per unit;  Short-run average costs and long-run average costs. 

30h (T) E.


BEC 405         Production Management                                                   2 Credits

Operations and production define; Standards as they apply to international business; Describe the role of International Organization for Standardization; Describe an 150 standards; Human resources; Strategic Management.

30h (T) E.


BEC 406         International Marketing                                                      2 Credits

Foreign markets and consumer behaviour; Marketing research; Product development; Standards and measures; Pricing strategies; Distribution channels and intermediaries;  Transportation and shipping; Promotional activities. 

30h  (T) C.


BEC 407         International Finance                                                            2 Credits

Currency and exchange (Apply international financial strategies, e.g., hedging, third-party help, pooling risk and diversification to manage foreign exchange risks);  Financial institutions and trade agreements (Growth, regulations and the impact of international +banking on global business);  payment methods and reporting 9payment options available in international trade given situations);  Risk management. 

30h (T) E.




B.Ed. Educational Management


EMA 101        Evolution of Educational Management in Nigeria                2 Credits

Origin and development of Educational Management in Nigeria from traditional education to the Western education and the contributions of Education Ordinances and Commissions to the development of education in Nigeria since 1882.            

                        30h (T); C.


EMA 102        Introduction to the National Policy on Education            2 Credits

History of Western education in Nigeria. Educational planning during the colonial and post-independence eras. The 1969 National Curriculum Conference. National Policy on Education and its implementation.                                    

30h(T): C


EMA 103        Basic Theories of Management                                           2 Credits

Overview of the historical development of management theories. Classical school of management. Behavioural school of management. Management functions at various managerial levels and managerial skills.

                        30h (T); C


EMA 104        Introduction to Curriculum Management                                     2 Credits

                        Concepts of curriculum, curriculum development and Curriculum Management. Curriculum planning, implementation and evaluation.  Role of  school heads in curriculum management at all levels. Managing learning in schools. Problems of curriculum management in schools. Accountability and school effectiveness.

                        30h (T); E


EMA 105        Record Keeping in Schools                                                              2 Credits

Meaning and types of school records. Purpose of record keeping in schools. Significance of statutory and non-statutory records.  Problems of record keeping in schools. Innovations in record keeping at school level.  Custodians of school records.

                        30h (T); C


EMA 106        Introduction to Human Resources Management              2 Credits

Fundamental principles and practices of recruiting and selecting, placing and inducting, developing, appraising, rewarding performance and utilizing human resources. Appropriate employment practices and implications for education managers.

                        30h (T);C


EMA 107        Introduction to Computers in Educational Administration   2 Credits           

Overview of computers as tool, tutor, tutee. Current major uses of computers in educational management tasks. Types of computers. Hardware and software. Components of computer hardware. Operating a computer system for administrative tasks.                                                                     

15h (T); 45 (P); C



EMA 108        Introduction to Pupil Personnel Administration              2 Credits

Organization and implementation of the student services for a sound instructional programme. Administration and supervision of student activities. Student participation in school management

                        30h (T); C


EMA 109        Introduction to School-Community Relations                  2 Credits

Development of school and community relations. Participation of laymen in planning school programmes. Cooperation through appropriate agents and agencies. Relationship of school personnel with the public.                               

30h (T); E


EMA 110        Introduction to Conflict Management in Education         2 Credits

Sources of organizational conflicts. Procedures and techniques of conflict management in Education.

                        30h (T);E


EMA 201        Introduction to Administrative Theories                           2 Credits

Development of administrative theories from the classical approach to the behavioural approach  (theory X, theory Y and contingency theory).

                        30h (T); C


EMA 202        Introduction to Educational Planning                                2 Credits

History of educational planning. Types of planning: manpower requirements, social demand, and rate of return / cost benefit analysis approaches.  Conditions for success in educational planning. Relationship between educational planning and economic planning. Political and economic functions of educational planning. Problems and issues in planning  education in Nigeria.

                        30h (T); C


EMA  203       School Management Laws and Standard Procedures      2 Credits

Laws as the basis of educational administration. A critical analysis of the education laws of Nigeria. Issues and problems in legislation for education. Recruitment, deployment, discipline and certification of teachers. Maintenance of school buildings and supply of equipment. Purpose, and storage of equipment. Preparation of reports.

                        30h (T);C


EMA 204        Education and National Development                                2 Credits

Concepts and constituent elements of political and economic dimensions of educational and national development.  Introduction to the comparative analysis of the relationship between educational system and the political and economic system. Case study of the relationship between educational planning and development planning in one selected country from any of the following regions of the world: Africa, Asia, North America, Latin America and Western Europe.

30h (T); E



EMA 205        Historical Development of Educational Management in Nigeria                                                                                                                         2 Credits

                        Development of educational administration in Nigeria before Lugard’s period. Development of British colonial education policy in West Africa in general and Nigeria in particular.

                        30h (T);E


EMA 206        School Plant Planning, Operation and Management       2 Credits 

Critical approach to the problems of school plant planning: design, siting, building materials, ventilation, space accommodation and utilization.

                        30h (T); C


EMA 207        Use of Computer in Educational Management                 2 Credits 

Computer and the information age.  Current major uses of computers in educational management functions: data and information processing, information storing and retrieval and data transmission. Introduction to programming principle.

                        30h (T); C


EMA 208        Elements of Financial Accounting in Education                 2 Credits    

Accounting terms e.g. assets, liabilities, debit, credits, etc. Basic principles of accounting including receipts and payments, income and expenditure accounts. Double entry book-keeping. Balance sheet, cash book, petty cash system.

                        30h (T); C


EMA 209        School-Community Relations                                              2 Credits

Development of school and community relations. Participation of community members in planning school programmes.  Co-operation through appropriate agents and agencies.  Relationship of school personnel with the public.

                        30h (T); E


EMA  210       Collective Bargaining and Nigeria's Educational Institutions  2 Credits

Evolution of collective bargaining. Components in the collective bargaining process. Relationship between unions and management including grievance procedures.Issues in education and bargaining.                                         

30h (T); E


EMA  211       Communication in Education                                                         2 Credits

Communication skills, communication process, organizational communications, organizational structures for communicating. Communicating with the public.  Barriers to communication.

30h (T); E


EMA 212        Professional Ethics in Education                                        2 Credits

                        Concept of profession in teaching.  Role of training in the development of teacher professional ethics. Laws (sources, types and implications) guiding teaching profession in Nigeria. Teachers codes of conduct and discipline

                        30h (T); C



EMA 301        Case Studies in Educational Management                         2 Credits

Administrative and organizational theories as applied to the analysis of the purposes, functions, and norms of educational systems.  Principles and practices in educational administration. Actual and hypothetical cases to illustrate theoretical analysis.

                        30h (T); E


EMA 302        Quantitative Methodology in Educational Planning        2 Credits

Analysis and appraisal of statistical data in Education. Evaluation of techniques used in educational planning. Projections, programming and detailed allocation of costs. Feasibility testing and consideration of alternatives.

                        15h (T); 45 (P); C


EMA 303        Managerial Decision-Making                                              2 Credits

Concept of decision-making.  Approaches to decision making and the decision making process. Factors affecting decision-making process. Requirements for decision-making. Decision making problems. Model building. Concepts of Management Information System (MIS).  MIS in school. Problems of MIS.

                        30h (T); E


EMA 304        Practicum in Educational Management I                          2 Credits

Uses of simple techniques:  histogram, progression table, flow charts etc. Enrolment forecasting and other techniques for administrative and policy problem solving in Education.

                        15h (T); 45 (P); C


EMA 305        Leadership in Formal Organization                                   2 Credits         

Concepts of power and authority. Problems of leadership in complex organizations: schools, universities, hospitals, business firms, the military and public bureaucracies with   emphasis on role of major executives.

                        30h (T); C


EMA 306        Change and Innovation Processes In Formal Organization 2 Credits

Deliberate and non-deliberate types of change. Administrative strategies for promoting desired changes in organizations: schools, universities, military, business firms, and public bureaucracies with focus on structural design, human relations strategies, evaluation process, long range strategic planning, political, and economic dynamics. Evaluation of programmes and institutions.

                        30h (T); C


EMA 307        School Mapping                                                                    2 Credits

Rationale for school location planning.  Conceptual groundwork. Choice of statistical unit and parameters. Diagnosis of enrollment, staffing conditions and facilities utilization rates. Factors influencing school  location.

                        30h (T); E


EMA 308        Supervision of Instruction                                                   2 Credits

Aims, purposes, patterns and processes of supervision. Functions and duties of a supervisor. Curriculum development, analysis of classroom activities and improvement of instruction through supervisory techniques. Trends in supervision and accepted procedures for observation.

                        30h (T); C


EMA 309        Trends in Nigerian Education                                             2 Credits

Overview of major forces influencing educational change and innovation in Nigeria. Recent trends in the development of primary, secondary and university education in Nigeria. The National Policy on Education of 1977 and  other reforms in the educational system.

                        30h (T); E


EMA 310        Introduction to Group Dynamics in Education                 2 Credits

Meaning and importance of groups. Types of groups. Rationale for group formation. Technology and work group in education.

                        30h (T); E


EMA 401        Politics of Education                                                             2 Credits

Politics of educational reform and policy making. Case study of the politics of educational innovation in selected countries.  Inter-organizational relations among local school boards, ministries of education and other governmental bodies responsible for educational policy making and implementation.  Education, political recruitment and merit.

                        30h (T); E


EMA 402        Economics of Education                                                       2 Credits  

Human resources development. Problems of manpower planning. Social and economic implications of educational planning. Education and jobs. Education and income. Private returns to investment in education. Cost analysis in education, cost effectiveness and the costing of educational plans.

30h (T); C                                                                                          


EMA 403        Policy Analysis in Education                                               2 Credits    

Analysis of the decision-making process in complex organizations. Impact of power, resources, organizational structure, information and enrolment, decision making models and their implications for educational administration. A critical analysis of policy documents and reports in Nigerian education. Role of interest groups in the process of policy formation and review. Issues of Universal and Basic Education.

30h (T);C


EMA 404        Practicum in Educational Management II                         2 Credits

Management techniques in Educational planning and administration. Practical work on PPBS, Pert, System Analysis, Delphi and Model Building. Analysis and grading of jobs in various sections of the educational system.

                        15h (T); 45h (P); C


EMA 405        Administration of Primary and Secondary Education in Nigeria  2 Credits

Current administrative and organizational structures in the management of Nigerian primary arid secondary schools. Power, authority and functions of


Local and State School Boards, Principals and teachers. Influence of Parents-Teachers Association (PTA) on School Management for potential reforms.

                        30h (T); C


EMA 406        Personnel Administration and Evaluation                         2 Credits

Job analysis, work load analysis and specification of credentials. Recruitment, selection and development of teachers and supportive staff. Administrator-teacher relations. Career patterns in Nigerian education today. Code of ethics. Merit rating and evaluation for advancement and promotion.

                        30h (T); C


EMA 407        Management in Education                                                   2 Credits

A broad overview of the basic principles, theories, goals and techniques of management studies in education.

                        30h (T); C


EMA 408        Educational Finance                                                             2 Credits

National and state budgets in relation to education. Government and private financing of primary, secondary, post-secondary, university and non-formal education. Principles and practice of school budgeting and salary scheduling.

                        30h(T); C                                                                                                                


EMA 409        Contemporary Issues in Educational Management          2 Credits

Conflict and conflict resolution. Discussion of current issues and problems of the educational system with a view to proffering solutions.                         

30h (T); C


EMA 410        Internship in Educational Management                            2 Credits

Attachment to educational organizations. Students will write and submit individual reports for grading.

                        90h (P); C


EMA 411        Administration of Early Childhood and Primary Education in Nigeria                                                                                                           2 Credits

                        Organization of early childhood and primary education. Proprietorship of early childhood and primary education. Legal basis of pre-primary and primary education. Problems and prospects of early childhood and primary education.

                        30h (T); E


EMA 412        Establishing New Schools                                                    2 Credits

Rules and regulations guiding opening of new schools: early childhood, primary, secondary and tertiary. Financing new schools. Resource requirement for starting a new school site. Human and material resources administration, supervision, quality assurance, etc. Challenges of opening new schools.

                        30h (T); E


EMA 413        Administration of Post-Secondary Education                   2 Credits

Types of post-secondary educational institutions: polytechnic, colleges of technology, universities and colleges of education. Organizational and administrative structures in each type of institution. Academic and manpower factors responsible for differences in structures. Staff, student, financial and physical plant administration. Functions of major executive in these institutions.

                        30h (T); C


EMA 499        Research Project in Educational Management                 4 Credits

Each student under the guidance of an approved supervisor is required to conduct research in an area approved by the Department, culminating in the submission of a project.

                        180h (P); C

EMA 751:      Advanced Research Methods in Educational Management.        2 Credits

                        Problem finding and formulation of problems.  Hypothesis.

                        The nature and forms of theory and knowledge claim.

                        Types of research and research data.  Quasi-experimental

                        cross-sectional and longitudinal data.  Instrumentation.

                        The validity inferences, Syllogism, Basic concepts of

                        statistical models, distributions, probability, random

                        variables, confidence intervals, regression, correlation and

                        analysis of variance and co-variance as applied in

                        educational research. 30h (T); C.


EMA 752:      Advanced managerial Psychology.  2 Credits

                        The individual in the organization; Understanding and

                        developing human resource; Fundamental Motivation;

                        the management of conflict, communication and

                        counseling; organizational change and development;

                        Psychological tests and identification of Management

                        Talent.  30H (T); R.


EMA 753:      Advanced Quantitative Analysis in Educational

                        Management. 2  Credits

                        Flow and stock analysis.  Appraisal of time-series data.

                        Projections. Network analysis.  Mathematical Models.

                        Programming and methods of allocation of costs.

                        Feasibility testing and consideration of alternatives.

                        30h (T); C.


EMA 754:      Advanced Human Resources Management in

                        Education.   2 Credits

                        Management and Personnel Administration Philosophy and

                        Plan; Organization and analyzing job; Recruitment and

                        Placement; compensation; Appraisal and

                        Development; Employee safety and Health; Legal

                        Environmental of Personnel Management, personnel

                        Research change and the future.  30h (T); C.


EMA 755:      Advanced Supervision in Education.  2 Credits

                        A comprehensive review of background for school

                        supervision; the people Context of supervision; structural

                        and operational patterns of supervision;  Human and

                        Technical skills in supervision; the component of process;

                        the characteristics of operational balance, further trends

                        and issues.  Quality assurance.  30h (T); C.


EMA 756:      Review of contemporary Research in Educational

                        Management.  2 Credits.

                        Analytical evaluation of at least ten masters dissertations

                        and five doctoral theses as in Eductional Management

                        across Nigeria, focusing on; the problem, purposes,

                        significance, scope and limitations, variables used; literature

                        review; methodology, presentation and analysis of data;

                        the research reports.  30h (T); R.


EMA 757:      Advanced Application of Computer in Education.     2  Credits

                        Computer Appreciation – What computer is Types of

                        computers with special references to Micro, SAS, SPSS

                        etc.  Concepts in data Processing, coding, data analysis

                        etc.  Word processing – Word perfect, Word start, etc.

                        30h (T); R.


EMA 791:      Postgraduate Seminar.  2 Credits

                        Students are supposed to identify suitable topic in their

                        areas of specialized and present two seminar papers at

                        the departmental seminar, which will be assessed at the

                        end of the oral presentation.  45 (P); R.



Programme               Compulsory Courses                        Required Courses


Ph.D                            EMA 751 – 2 Credits                         EMA 752 –2 Credits

                                    EMA 753 -      2 Credits                     EMA 756 – 2 Credits

                                    EMA 754 – 2 Credits                         EMA 757 -  2 Credits

                                    EMA 755 -  2 Credits                         EMA 791 -  2 Credits

                                                            = 8 Credits                             =  8 Credits


                        Total Number of C & R Courses = 16 Credits